其實這並不是真正的文章, 正確來說是網上論壇留言, 來自《經濟學人》的. 《經濟學人》作為很典型的西方傳媒, 經常發表一些"開明"的文章, 早幾天就出了一篇支持移民的評論, 可是在它自己的網上論壇內卻被讀者罵得很厲害. 轉載過來的這篇是出自一位(自稱)丹麥人的用戶, 他在裏面講解了自己還有很多丹麥人反對引入移民的原因, 我覺得相當能夠反映現時這種反移民人士的論調.
順便講一講丹麥. 其實丹麥在歐洲富有國之中算比較保護主義的. 她的反移民政黨勢力頗強, 現在還是執政聯盟中的一環. 她的移民政策較其他富有國嚴謹. 她雖然加入了神根公約 (即讓歐洲國家間旅客出入境免簽證和地檢的條約), 最近卻又反悔自行中止實行公約. 她不相信歐盟, 也沒有使用歐元, 加入歐盟純粹是因為這樣農產品政策會對國家有利......總的來說是在政治上較保守的國家.
Swedane wrote: Aug 27th 2011 5:55 GMT .
You are Mexican. I am Danish. (1) Unfortunately I don't know much about Mexico, having been there only once, but let me tell you about Denmark. It is one of the oldest nations in the world. (2) It is a very small country in the periphery of Europe, totally devoid of natural resources; it has a poor soil and a tough climate, it consists of a small peninsula and about five hundred windswept islands of which only 380 are inhabitable. To get from one place to another we had to build bridges, roads, make ferry lines, ports and other necessary infrastructure. As I said: no natural resources, no raw material. The only thing we have is a hard working, disciplined, obedient, homogenous pool of human beings who work hard and accept to pay 49 percent of their income in taxes for the general well-being and for the good of the nation. Until recently we paid one per cent of our GDP to developing countries without seeing any tangible result, and we have taken in several thousands of refugees from just about anywhere none of whom seem to appreciate our hospitality. (And - not that it matters but just so that you know - a personal remark here: I had my first orange when I was eight!)
During its recent history Denmark has been invaded, occupied, bombarded, amputated. (3) We have had to endure consequences of several wars, even though we tried to stay neutral. Napoleon said hello, Wellington bombarded us, Admiral Nelson destroyed our fleet and we were bankrupted; the Germans came a number of times in 1848-52, 1864, indirectly in 1914-1918, and again in 1940-45. (4) All this notwithstanding, Denmark has survived and prospered as a free and independent and respected nation enjoying one of the highest living standards in the world.
And why? Because we worked hard and diligently, because we were law abiding, because we believed in educating ourselves and our children in order to make them useful and competent citizens with a sense of solidarity and responsibility. And because our ancestors gave us cultural values that we cherish and wish to preserve - undiluted - for future generations. (5)
That's Denmark for you. Now you tell me about Mexico and the Mexicans.But please also tell me what makes you think that you and others have a right to my country just because you made a failed state out of your own.
2. 丹麥是由維京人組成的國家, 估計從公元 1000 前就已經立國. 丹麥亦因此領有很多海島. (法羅群島和格陵蘭等.)
3. 丹麥在中世紀是控制北海和波羅的海的強國, 但之後被東北面的瑞典和南面的德意志諸侯威脅, 海軍又不及英國和荷蘭, 到18~9世紀時已經沒落成二流國家, 經常被攻擊.
4. 丹麥在二戰中迅速被德軍佔領, 但王室和政府雖然投降了卻經常抗逆納粹方的指令. 最有名的是全國上下動員趕在納粹方開殺戒前將猶太人偷運往瑞典的秘密行動 (聽起來好像很矛盾, 動員全國的秘密行動). 當時丹麥國內有約 8000 名猶太人, 只有 450 人被納粹捉到, 而最終亦只有約 100 人死亡.
5. 最後, 在網上看到有評論說丹麥的民族主義跟其他主流國家的不同. 由於曾經是大國現在卻變成小國的歷史背景, 當代丹麥的民族主義變得封閉, 強調國內團結統一, 歷史文化傳統等, 而且並不對外擴張. 可是相當來說, 如果有外人要來破壞這個和諧, 卻必定惹來反彈.
之前提到過丹麥的反移民政黨很有勢力, 那就是丹麥人民黨 Danish People's Party (DF), 它在上次大選中獲得 13.8% 選票, 是第3大政黨. 他的主張跟上面提到的丹麥民族主義很相似.
The party's expressed goals are to protect the freedom and cultural heritage of the Danish people, including the family, the Monarchy and the Church of Denmark, to enforce a strict rule of law, to work against Denmark becoming a multi-ethnic society by limiting immigration and promoting cultural assimilation of admitted immigrants, to maintain a strong welfare system for those in need, and to promote entrepreneurship and economic growth by strengthening education and encouraging people to work, and to protect the environment and natural resources.
有趣的是丹麥有兩個"人民黨黨". 一個是上述的右傾丹麥人民黨 Danish People's Party, 另一個是左傾的社會人民黨 Socialist People's Party. 以前的文章有分析過, 歐洲的排外有兩種, 一種是反外國人, 一種是反歐盟. DPP 是兩種都反, 而 SPP 是只反歐盟. SPP 在上次大選中得到 13.0% 票, 是第四大黨. 兩黨加起來的選票超過四分一, 再加上其他政黨也有不同程度的反外國人/反歐盟, 丹麥整體的"排外"度還真是頗高的.
順帶一提, 丹麥下次大選就在今個月內. 民調顯示 DF 仍會是國會主要勢力, 但整體上反對派 (左派) 較有機會勝出.